A table saw (generally known as a sawbench or bench saw in England) is a woodworking tool, comprising a circular saw blade, mounted on an arbor, that’s driven by a power motor (either directly, by belt, or by gears). The blade protrudes through the most notable of a table, which gives support for the material, usually wood, being cut.
Generally in most modern table saws, the depth of the cut is varied by moving the blade along: the bigger the blade protrudes above the table, the deeper the cut that’s manufactured in the material. In a few early table saws, the blade and arbor were fixed, and the table was moved along to expose pretty much of the blade. The angle of cut is manipulated by adjusting the angle of blade. Some earlier saws angled the table to regulate the cut angle.
The overall types of table saws are compact, benchtop, jobsite, contractor, hybrid, cabinet, and sliding table saws.
A table saw patent filed in 1878
Benchtop table saws are lightweight and so are designed to be put on a table or other support for operation. This sort of saw is frequently utilized by householders and DIYers. They more often than not have a direct-drive (blade driven directly by the motor) universal motor. Some early models used small induction motors, which weren’t very powerful, made the saw heavy, and caused a whole lot of vibration. Modern saws could be lifted by one individual and carried to and from a specific location. These saws frequently have parts manufactured from steel, aluminum and plastic and so are made to be compact and light.
Benchtop table saws will be the most affordable (typically costing in the $100-$200 range) and least with the capacity of the table saws; however, they may offer satisfactory ripping capacity and precision for some tasks. The universal motor isn’t as durable or as quiet as an induction motor, nonetheless it offers more power in accordance with its size and weight. The most notable of a benchtop table saw is narrower than those of the contractors and cabinet saws, therefore the width of stock which can be ripped is reduced. Another restriction results from the most notable being smaller from leading of the tabletop to the trunk. This results in a shorter rip fence, that makes it harder to generate a clean, straight cut when ripping. Also, there is less distance from leading edge of the tabletop to the blade, making cross cutting stock by using a miter more challenging (the miter and/or stock might not exactly be fully supported by the table before the blade). Benchtop saws will be the smallest kind of table saw and also have minimal mass, potentially leading to increased vibration throughout a cut. Nowadays, these models are being eliminated for more practical jobsite model saws.
Jobsite table saws are slightly bigger than benchtop models, and tend to be located on a folding or stationary stand during operation. These saws are mostly employed by carpenters, contractors, and tradesman on the jobsite (hence the name). Several saws are more costly than benchtop saws (typically in the $300-$600 range). Most saws in this category have small but powerful 15 amp universal motors. Many high end saws have gear-driven motors. Many of these saws are relatively light, and will be easily transported to employment location. Several saws are designed more ruggedly and tend to be more accurate compared to the entry-level benchtop models. The motors, gears, and cases are usually made to better withstand the abuse of construction sites. In comparison with benchtop saws, many jobsite models have ¾” miter slots, better fences, better overall alignment, sliding extension tables, larger rip capacities, and folding stands with wheels.
Compact table saws are much bigger than lightweight saws, and take a seat on a stationary stand. The motor continues to be a universal type motor, however these are generally driven by small toothed belts. Some saws have cast iron tops, and so are similar to look at to larger contractor saws, although the tables usually are smaller and the build is of lighter construction. Some models even feature sliding-miter tables, with an integral miter sled that may be tilted to numerous different angles.
Contractor table saws, (also sometimes known as open-stand saws), are heavier, larger saws that are mounted on a stand or base, often with wheels. On these saws, the motor (Usually a one to two 2 hp (750 to 1500 W) induction type motor) hinges off the trunk of the saw on a pivoting bracket (although direct drive models have existed) and drives the blade with one, or rarely, two rubber v-belts.  Here is the type often employed by hobbyists and householders because standard electrical circuits provide satisfactory capacity to run them, and as a result of their generally low priced in comparison with larger saws. As the motor hangs off the trunk of the saw, dust collection is often problematic as well as ineffective.
Contractor saws were at first made to be somewhat portable, often having wheels, and were frequently taken to job sites prior to the invention of smaller bench-top models in the first 1980s. Contractor saws are heavier than bench-top saws, but remain lightweight in comparison with cabinet saws. Their larger size and greater power allows them to be utilized for larger projects and allows them to become more durable, accurate, and longer-lasting then bench-top saws.
Cabinet table saws are heavy, using huge amounts of cast iron and steel, to reduce vibration and increase accuracy.
A cabinet saw is seen as a having a specific base. Cabinet saws will often have induction motors in the three to five 5 hp (2.24 to 3.73 kW) range, single-phase, but motors in the 5 to 7.5 HP (3.73 to 5.22 kW) range, three-phase, are normal in commercial/industrial sites. For home use, this sort of motor typically requires a heavy-duty circuit be installed. The motor is enclosed within the cabinet and drives the blade with a number of parallel V-belts, often “A” belts as “A” belts could be ganged and never have to be especially selected (otherwise, especially selected sets of light-duty “4L” belts are used). Cabinet saws provide following advantages over contractor saws: heavier construction for lower vibration and increased durability; a cabinet-mounted trunnion (the mechanism that incorporates the saw blade mount and permits height and tilt adjustment); improved dust collection because of the totally enclosed cabinet and common incorporation of a dust collection port. Cabinet saws were created for, and are with the capacity of very high duty-cycles, such as for example are encountered in commercial/industrial applications. Where a few of the features of a cabinet saw are desired in a home shop application, so-called “hybrid” saws have emerged to handle this need.
Cabinet saws have an easily replaceable insert around the blade in the table top allowing the utilization of zero-clearance inserts, which help reduce tear out on underneath of the workpiece. It’s quite common for this sort of saw to be built with a table extension that increases ripping convenience of sheet goods to 50″. These saws are seen as a a cast iron top on a full-length steel base, generally square in section, with radiused corners. Two 3/4″ wide miter slots (1″ wide on the major saws) can be found parallel to the blade, someone to the left of the blade and someone to the right.
American-style cabinet saws generally follow the style of the Delta Unisaw, a design which has evolved since 1939. Saws of the general type are created in america and Canada, or are imported from Taiwan and China. The most typical kind of rip fence mounted to this sort of saw is seen as a the standard model created by Biesemeyer (now a subsidiary of Delta). It includes a sturdy, steel T-type fence mounted to a steel rail at the front end of the saw and replaceable laminate faces. American cabinet saws are usually made to accept a 13⁄16″ wide stacked dado blade and a standard saw blade. The most frequent size of blade is 10″ in diameter with a blade arbor diameter of 5⁄8″, but 12″ or 14″ in diameter with a blade arbor diameter of just one 1″ are located in commercial/industrial sites. American saws normally include an anti-kickback device that incorporates a splitter, toothed anti-kickback pawls and a clear plastic blade cover. The saw blade can tilt to either the left side or right side of the saw, according to the style of saw. The initial Delta Unisaw and early cabinet saws predicated on it were all right-tilt units while newer Delta Unisaws and several competitive cabinet saws made after 2000 were left-tilt saws. The change to left-tilt was because of a lesser perceived propensity for the cut piece to be trapped between your rip fence and blade and relax when the blade tilts from the rip fence (left tilt saw) versus towards the rip fence (right tilt saw.) While conceptually simple in design, these saws are highly evolved and so are with the capacity of efficient, high volume, precision work.
Hybrid table saws are created to compete available in the market with high-end contractor table saws. They provide some of the features of cabinet saws at less price than traditional cabinet saws. Hybrid saws available today offer a specific cabinet to greatly help improve dust collection. The cabinet can either be similar to a cabinet saw with a complete enclosure from the table top to the ground or a shorter cabinet on legs. Some hybrid saws have cabinet-mounted trunnions plus some have table-mounted trunnions. Generally, cabinet-mounted trunnions are better to adapt than table-mounted trunnions. Hybrid saws have a tendency to be heavier than contractor saws and lighter than cabinet saws. Some hybrid saws give a sliding table as a choice to boost cross cutting capability. Hybrid saw drive mechanisms vary a lot more than contractor saws and cabinet saws. Drive mechanisms could be a single v-belt, a serpentine belt or multiple v-belts. Hybrid saws have a 1.5 or 2 hp motor and so the ability to operate on a typical 15 or 20 amp 120 volt American household circuit, while a cabinet saw’s 3 hp or larger motor takes a 240 volt supply.
Mini and micro
A 1-inch (25 mm) micro table saw.
Mini and micro table saws have a blade diameter of 4 inches (100 mm) and under. Mini table saws are usually 4 inch, while micro table saws are significantly less than 4 inch, although the naming of the saws isn’t well defined.
Mini and micro table saws are usually employed by hobbyists and model builders, although the mini table saws (4 inch) have gained some popularity with building contractors that require only a tiny saw to cut small pieces (such as for example wood trim). Being truly a fraction of the size (and weight) of a standard table saw, they are much better to carry and transport.
Being much smaller when compared to a normal table saw, they are substantially safer to use when cutting really small pieces. Using blades that contain a smaller kerf (cutting width) than normal blades, there is less material lost and the opportunity of kickback is reduced aswell.